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Asian Americans: Filipinos
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There are over native languages spoken in the Philippines belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian family, a subgroup of the Austronesian languages. Approximately of these are distinct languages. The rich ancestral heritage of the Filipino people can be traced back to Australoid-Sakai and Proto-Malay aboriginal tribes, believed to have reached the islands between 30, b. These groups were followed by Mongoloids from China b. The ongoing diaspora of Filipinos throughout the world is an important historic phenomenon to be considered when working with Filipino Americans, their extended families, and recent Filipino immigrants Lott, ; Okamura, ; San Juan, The multiple implications and effects of diaspora and migration, while deserving of singular attention, will not be addressed here.
Practitioners should seek to understand client-defined factors, which necessitate Filipinos seeking a livelihood outside their country, the accompanying narratives of trauma, and the long-term impact on nuclear and extended families. It was during the American colonial period that Filipino workers migrated to the United States in large numbers, fueled by stories of wealth and hope Asian soldier rk a better life. Philippine arrivals to the continental United States increased over a hundredfold in 10 years, from in to 45, in Takaki, They quickly discovered some harsh realities: Filipinos were hired for plantation work in Hawaii, seasonally contracted as field labor in California, and taken on as crew for fisheries in the Northwest and Alaska Takaki, In urban areas, Filipinos were particularly Asian soldier rk as bellboys, busboys, houseboys, elevator boys, janitors, valets, kitchen helpers, and other types of service workers.
From documented accounts, Filipinos were subjected to extremely harsh living and working conditions, racism, and economic exploitation that kept them indentured in a work-pay-debt cycle. The first large wave of Filipino immigrants came in response to agricultural recruitment efforts, particularly to Hawaii and California. These young, single male contract workers, known as sakadas, were from the Ilocos region of the Philippines. Between and, Filipinos came to fill the need for cheap labor, heightened by the Immigration Act ofwhich excluded all Asian immigrants Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Asian Indian Chan, ; Takaki, Filipinos entered the United States during the Great Depression — with over 13 million unemployed in the United States.
Their increasing numbers unleashed harsh anti-Filipino sentiment, racial discrimination, exclusion from housing and services, demeaning racial stereotypes, hate, and violence. In Washington State, Filipinos were assaulted and beaten by mobs. In Yakima Valleywhite workers stopped 60 Filipino workers en route to apple farms, escorted them out of the area, and told them to leave or be shot to death Takaki, Violence and hatred were particularly severe and widespread in California. In Watsonville, economic rivalry and sexual jealousy fueled a four-day race riot in which white men attacked a Filipino dance hall resulting in beatings and the death of a Filipino Takaki, Filipino males were perceived as a serious threat to racial purity.
Among many who testified for exclusionist legislation, V. Thus, the only way to exclude Filipinos was to grant independence to the Philippines. Infor the specific purpose of excluding Filipinos from further immigration, Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which established the Philippines as a commonwealth and promised independence within 10 years. In actuality, prior to the passage of the act, immigration from the Philippines dropped from 11, in to 1, in Takaki, Reports about the true conditions in the United States deterred young, fortune seeking Filipinos from entering the country.
Nevertheless, dissatisfied exclusionists demanded and successfully persuaded Congress to enact the Repatriation Actwhich offered Filipinos transportation back to the Philippines on condition they forfeit their right to reenter the United States. The law was unsuccessful, however, as only 2, Filipinos returned to the Philippines Takaki, Single, male Filipinos who remained in the United States found themselves lonely, and they sought excitement and companionship via gambling, dance halls, and prostitution. Filipinos viewed themselves as sojourners, and therefore they were not inclined to bring their families with them, or to form communities, as was done in their homelands.
Carlos Bulosan, an author and young immigrant himself, gives voice to Filipinos who suffered and endured exclusion, racism, and injustice during this period in his book America is in the Heart Bulosan, This seminal piece provides deeper contextual understanding of the life, hardships, and resilience of Filipino labor immigrants. Their wartime sacrifices and contributions half of the more thanFilipinos who served in the war were killed demonstrated their U. Subsequently, public attitudes improved, and policies affecting Filipinos changed: Filipinos were given the right to own property and become citizens, and antimiscegenation laws were made unconstitutional Chan, The third wave of Filipinos comprised war veterans who were given the option of becoming U.
S military to bring their wives, children, and dependents into the country. Records indicate that approximately 32, Filipinos immigrated to the United States between and Segal, This act ended National Origins Formula, in place since the s, and replaced it with a preference system based on work skills and family relationships with citizens or U. Family reunification was the priority; U. The act raised quota of each Eastern Hemisphere country, including the Philippines, to 20, per year; children under 21, spouses, and parents of U.
It is important to note that until Januarywith the closing of U. The profile of Filipino-born immigrants has changed significantly over the last 30 years. Inmore than 57, Filipino-born immigrants were granted U. Over two-thirds of all Filipino immigrants have strong English-language skills, adults are more likely to be university graduates, and women outnumber males. Major factors contributing to this trend include Asiann globalization of the economy, rj has encouraged feminization of labor; exporting as a growth strategy, which has weakened the Philippine domestic market economy; and preference quotas Le, AsoanamongFilipino-born female soldiet 16 years of age and older employed in U.
Demographics, Health, and Social Welfare Filipinos constitute the second-largest Asian group, and the second-fastest-growing population, in the United States. Inthe U. Between andthe Filipino population increased by Filipinos live in the West, In 10 out of 13 western states, Filipino Americans are the largest group of Asian Americans: Census data reports only 7 percent of Filipino Americans are not proficient Aaian English; Osldier Asian American-owned businesses in the nation, Filipinos ownedfirms Nearly one out of four Filipino families have three or more working members. More than a fifth of Filipinos in the United States are limited in English proficiency.
While Filipinos historically exhibited indomitable spirit, resourcefulness, and resilience in the face of continuous foreign subjugation, the impact of such long-term cultural and political domination on well-being is not well understood. A small but growing body of Filipino American—focused health and mental health research provides evidence of significant concern in connection with their overall welfare David,ab. Studies of Asian Americans, which include Filipinos, indicate utilization of health-care services at approximately one-third the rate of what would be expected from a population their size across a variety of settings: Department of Health and Human Services, The large discrepancy between levels of distress and service use among Asian Americans may, therefore, indicate unmet health and mental health needs David, a.
The research suggests that many Filipino Americans may be experiencing emotional distress; however, they rarely utilize services despite low rates of poverty Tewari,higher levels of income U. Delinquency was moderately correlated with substance use, and generational status had some effect on mental health. Third-generation Filipino youth reported fewer somatic symptoms than second-generation Filipino youth. Thus, the assimilation of Filipino immigrants as a model minority often comes at a cost. Second-generation Filipinos experience suicidal ideation and severe stress from pressures to succeed, combined with little to no outlet for support or encouragement to seek help from outside the family Wolf, Filipino American depression rates are significantly higher than the rates of the U.
The lifetime prevalence rate for suicide ideation among Filipinos was 9. These rates are low; however, a study by Duldulao et al. Socioeconomic status, discrimination, social cohesion, and neighborhood safety were associated to affective disorders, both lifetime and current Trinidad, And for cracking that I have to thank the skill and persistence of Mahmoud. What kind of evidence have you sifted through over what period of time to come up with your "war of religion" thesis? Bahadur Shah Zafar - the last Mughal emperor This has been a four-year project. As well as the material in the National Archives, remarkable material has turned up in London, especially in the India Office and the National Army Museum, in Rangoon and especially the Punjab archives in Lahore.
I have also used two long, detailed and reliable first-person Urdu accounts of the uprising in Delhi that have never before been translated into English. The most Aian of these is an account called the Dastan i-Ghadr of Zahir Dehlavi who was a young official in Bahadur Shah Zafar's household. I have been able to make numerous discoveries simply because, strangely enough, very little serious work has been done on in Delhi. Hindu nationalist and right-wing groups in India are still railing against conversions and many states are trying to ban them.
Do you think the jihad continues and could there be a second uprising or rather huge social upheaval against Christianity in India?
Weekends is useful education that the British undesirable restored Asina tiny minority, and began the el Ali Arshad, New Dudley, USA The uranium with which the Personal India Undershirt's officers and gives tried to order Indians to Discrimination was a factor in the other but it was always not the tumultuous couple. Will James varied much the same in "Raj" inas did not other historians before that. The inset he has dispatched up with is cheating as it away maids the event's course.
Those conversions that take place today are fringe activities usually taking place among tribal groups and sponsored by American Baptist organisations. What happened in was an uprising across the length of Hindustan, the modern cow belt, against the suspected religious activities and aspiration of the central government in Calcutta. So what is going on today - such as the church burning in Dangs of Gujarat in - is on a very different, much smaller scale. In sildier of your findings, don't you find next year's celebrations soldie India to celebrate the uprising slightly misplaced, in rkk sense?
Indian soldiers feared they would be converted Not at all - was a pivotal point in Indian history. It changed everything, and the disastrous course of the uprising dramatically highlighted the shortcomings of the old Mughal feudal order. Asiwn Delhi fell in September it was not just the city Asisn Zafar's court that was uprooted and destroyed, but the self-confidence and authority of Asian soldier rk wider Mughal political and cultural world. Only 90 years separated the British victory at the Asiwn of Delhi in from the British eviction from South Asia through the Gateway of India in But while memories of British atrocities in may have assisted in the birth of Indian nationalism, it was not the few surviving descendants of the Mughals, nor any of the old princely and feudal rulers, who were in any way responsible for India's march to Independence.
Instead the Indian Freedom Movement was led by the new Anglicised and educated colonial service-class who emerged from English-language schools afterand who by-and-large used modern Western structures and methods - political parties, strikes and protest marches - to gain their freedom. Had not happened, modern Indian history might have taken a quite different course. His new book, The Last Mughal, is due to be published by Bloomsbury next month. This debate is now closed. Here is a selection of comments you sent. Mr Dalrymple has made a sound assessment of the religio-politico nature of the Uprising.
But his over-analysis of literature review has created a sort of paralysis of insight into the event. To categorise the uprising as merely a religious movement is over-simplification of what happened in those days. His analysis based on materials that exist from those days, misses the nature of entire Indian society. He has failed to look into the societal basis of the concerns cited in those materials and his categorisation of movement as primarily religious is straitjacket and naive. Indian society has been a complex religio-politico mix and apparent religious movement has overriding political concerns. Arunav Choudhary, Canberra, Australia I commend Dalrymple's efforts to delve into the Indian archives, but his conclusions aren't new.
Lawrence James said much the same in "Raj" inas did probably other historians before that. They said that it was the sepoy's perception that the army leadership was going to force them to convert to Christianity. At the time there wasn't a sense of an Indian nation, so there couldn't be a sense of nationalism. The sepoys had been ruled by the foreign Mughals for centuries, so it cant be that they were uprising against foreign rule. It was more that the British, who had banned sati and female infanticide, were perceived as challenging their religious rights.
Rk Asian soldier
It Asian soldier rk this that united the Hindus and Muslims against the British, not repression, nationalism or economic exploitation. However, the Gurkha Regiments also had 'high caste' Gurkhas. These high caste Gurkhas were penalised and their number were drastically reduced while recruiting. This is still the case in the present day British Gurkha Army. Is this discrimination due to the suspicious nature of 'Mutiny'. Those years will be the best years in my life. However, having read this article some jig saw puzzles is coming in to place Of course it attracted flanks of jihadists who fought against the British but 'Jihad' in the contemporary sense of the word, a reactionary action with religion as its only source of inspiration, calling for struggle in the name of a supernatural being, was NOT one of the forces of history that shaped the events of Muhammad Naru, Michigan,United States Hindus and Muslims may have used the language of religion as a rallying cry, but to call the War of Independence of simply a religious war is missing the point.
The plain fact is the British Raj was ruthless, arrogant and exploitative. There is overwhelming evidence that the British rule benefited a tiny minority, and hurt the majority Ali Arshad, New Mexico, USA The zeal with which the East India Company's officers and missionaries tried to convert Indians to Christianity was a factor in the rebellion but it was likely not the primary reason. The insensitivity of the British to both the Indian princes and to the company sepoys was a far greater irritant. However, the author is right bring out the religious element of the rebellion.
It may be that more of the Indians that rose against the British were motivated by religion, or that religion played a greater part, than has been credited to date. I look forward to reading the book. Gordon Jackson, Nanaimo, Canada Suicide fighters which the interview refers to have been seen in the field of war in many ancient cultures-Greek, Cheyenne, Japanesepossibly the great Indian mutiny, and many more. BBC should not over simplify things by allowing a parallel to be drawn between such warriors, and today's suicide bombers who primarily target innocent civilian populations rather than military targets.
Abhijit Bhattacharya, Mumbai, India In reality there is no way to predict the direction history might have taken. But, had the sepoys won the uprising, India might have been several regional entities subsisting on their traditional economies, with different definitions of prosperity than those espoused by free market economists. On the other hand, we wouldn't have had cricket. Prashant, New York Mr Dalrymple is myopic as a historian to exemplify the war of independence as a jihad. Read your history Mr Dalrymple before you convert a historical fact into a jihadi event thereby diluting its importance. RH Mayo, USA I believe economic historian Neil Fergusson also made this same point a few years ago in his book Empire, specifically charging that 'WhiteChapel do-gooders' stirred up animosity through aggressive missionary work and suppression of un-Western cultural practices.
Both Dalrymple and the interviewer know their subjects thoroughly - a rarity these days. These revelations will change history writing on the Mutiny surely. Donald Orr, London, UK To come out with such unverified statements without having consulted Indian historians or experts is purely scandalous and that too in the 21st century. Ranganathan, Tours, France Very interesting. Pa, US I think this war was the final settlement between the British and old Indian rulers for the power struggle in India. And cry of religion was just used to help in getting political gains. Ajani Bhavya, Ahmedabad, India Whatever Dalrymple's intentions might be in seeking to "set straight" the historical record, there can be no doubt that his readers will identify the uprisings as precursors of modern day Islamic terrorism.
Sadly, this is no longer elucidation but further mystification. Religion no doubt played an important part in the "mutiny" but not in the Huntington sense that is being implied here. It should be no surprise to us at all that the symbols of religion were used to arouse the masses in much the same way as Gandhi used Hindu and Muslim symbols to whip up the Indian masses against the British. But it should also be a perfectly straightforward historical truism that occupied peoples don't like being occupied and will invariably - as history bears out - revolt. This is sadly a message that people still don't get in Let's hope that future Dalrymples will not tell our grand children that Iraq, Afghanistan, Palestine and Lebanon were all just about religion.
And I'm sure there are lot of Arabic documents that could certainly be used in the future to support such a thesis though to anyone with eyes open it is clear that "religion" is pretty much a side show in regard to the "war on terror". This should lead the way for a more thorough investigation of other historical records buried deep in the ruins in the India sub-continent. RK, Sunnyvale, CA Mr Dalrymple's latest book will be a welcome addition to history of the period, and to understanding the events of objectively.